A world without phones?
Can we imagine a day without our cellphone? It turns out to be a nightmare right? Nowadays, the usage of Cell phones is indispensable for all of us. The only source of communication to connect with our loved ones is through cell phone only. The transformation from landline to smartphones would surely have a history behind it. So, let’s see the history of Telecommunications – Then and Now.
TELECOMMUNICATIONS – THEN AND NOW
From fixed cables to satellites
In the early years of telecommunications, fixed cables were the only way in linking one telephone with other. Links between continents relied on cables under the sea. Also, wireless communication evolved through the invention of the radio. But, because the surface of the Earth is curved these signals are not able to travel far.
So, this problem is solved through satellites. They sit at an exact height above the Earth’s equator (usually around 35,000km/22,000miles). Also, they rotate at the same speed as the Earth spins. This means they are staying in a fixed position. Moreover, telephone signals can be sent to the satellites and bounce back to earth. Another fact is, only 5 to 6 satellites can be covered everywhere on the planet except for the poles. And, surrounding areas that are out of range.
Cables Under Sea
Soon after telegraph cables came into use in the 1840s, attempts were made to lay them across rivers and between islands and mainlands. Unfortunately, most didn’t work. In 1850, the first cable was laid across the English channel. It resists attack by saltwater, ocean currents and water pressure. Inside were copper wires which carried the power and signal.
Technical improvements and the demand for faster communications led to cables being laid over greater distances. But, several attempts to lay them across the Atlantic failed when the cables snapped, but one was completed in 1858.
To mark the occasion, Queen Victoria sent a telegraph message to President Buchanan in the USA. It took almost 48 hours. Then, attempts were made to increase the pace by raising the voltage, but this burned out the cable. In 1865, the world’s largest ship at the time, the Great Eastern, laid the first continuous cable across the Atlantic.
During the 20th century, telegraph cables, which transmitted Morse code were steadily replaced by telephone cables, which could transmit voices Hundreds of thousands of kilometres of underwater cables were laid across the world’s oceans and seas. Then, fibre optic cables replaced this, which offer transmission and many more connections.
FIRST TELEPHONE BELL
We are aware of Alexander Graham Bell often called the father of the telephone initiated this invention. He is an expert on the science of speech and his inventions helped deaf people to hear sounds. During his research, he developed a method of transmitting voice messages along a wire. In 1876, he patented the device, which he called the harmonic telegraph. This is so-called the first telephone which we call it now a landline.
IMPACT OF THIS INVENTION
It’s almost a big struggle to land on what we need. Can we imagine the transformation from fixed cables to the smartphones which we are using now? From this, we can understand that Technologies are improving a lot and we are moving towards the trend. This transformation wouldn’t be possible without the efforts made by our predecessors. Through this amazing invention, we are now having cell phones for communication all over the world. Hereinbelow we can see some of the top countries who use mobile phones more:
China – 534,000,000
India – 242,400,000
USA – 233,000,000
Russia – 150,000,000
Japan – 100,700,000
UK – 69,675,000
World Total – 3,300,000,000
In 2006, India joined the list of countries with more than 100 million mobile phones and has since risen rapidly to take second place on the world list. So, these are the facts and transformations of the Telecommunications – Then And Now.
Written by: Ananie Borgia